打敗故事行銷幽默感搶攻消費者心佔率

國際上運用幽默元素導入高涉入產品廣告的比例不低,主因是幽默廣告能夠有效紓解消費者的焦慮,並增進對廣告之產品與品牌產生較正面的態度。從裕隆日產汽車(Nissan) 車款Livina 系列廣告的操作,可發現幽默廣告能增進話題性,進而達到產品宣傳的最大成效。

曉華今年剛升上主管,工作開始趨向穩定,正想為家中添購新車,以便假日能帶全家出去玩。遍尋市場上7 人座以上的車款,卻遲遲無法決定該買哪一台,難以在內部空間、油耗問題以及性能之間做出抉擇。有一天聽到5 歲的兒子看著電視喊著:「耶!獨角仙」,發現兒子正在看廣告,並學著其中台詞:「獨角仙,為什麼是黑的?因為他常去戶外玩,所以曬黑了!喔~ 好冷喔!」曉華對於這台車款的口號「小車的省油、MPV的空間、SUV 的自由」印象深刻,再上網找尋該款車子的資料,發現該款車子有推出系列廣告,都以獨角仙為主角,覺得有趣又可愛。在與妻子討論之後,決定前往試乘⋯⋯。

幽默喚起消費者的關注力

多數人聽到幽默,通常都會認為:「就是好笑的人事物」,甚至是一種感覺,無法形容出來,隨著時代的改變,每一世代對於幽默的感覺也不同。主要因為幽默必須具備相當程度的理解能力,而理解能力來自於過去的經驗累積,所以具有不同成長脈絡的人,對於同樣的事物都有不同詮釋。來自年齡、文化背景、教育程度、主修類型(文理法商)與環境等因子的影響,對於幽默的感知都不同。所以無論是產業界或學界,都不斷試圖了解幽默是什麼,以期能夠有效的運用幽默,達到更高的效益。綜合過去筆者針對幽默的研究,認為幽默指的是:「泛指引人發笑或感覺有趣的文字、言語、行為或一切外顯的表徵」。

近幾年來幽默運用在高涉入產品廣告中的比例越來越高,因為高涉入產品的價格相對消費者而言是昂貴的,或是該產品對消費者而言相對較能引起興趣,因此會對此類產品付出較多的關注與思考時間,以避免承擔錯誤購買的風險,而幽默元素則能促進消費者對廣告的關注力、記憶與喜好。故企業每年的鉅額廣告投資中,都有相當的比例具有幽默元素,甚至世界知名廣告獎的得獎作品,也常蘊含幽默元素,例如:CLIO 獎(每年於美國紐約舉辦的廣告獎,有廣告界奧斯卡獎美稱,被視為廣告界的最高榮譽)與國內時報廣告金像獎等,企業界不斷找尋如何有效的運用幽默元素,來提升廣告效果,以期投入的資金能發揮最大功效。

雖然廣告的成功不等於消費者一定會購買廣告內的商品,因為消費者的購買行為是屬於較複雜的歷程,購買時並非只依據廣告訊息而做決策。但只要能夠確實喚起消費者的注意、記憶與喜好,就代表廣告本身是成功的。消費者常可以從廣告台詞或是背景音樂,想到廣告相關內容,雖然可能無法明確的說出是什麼廣告,但一定會產生「我看過」的感覺。以下簡單舉個例子:

「生命中最重要的事是什麼?健康?愛情?財富?5 個平均81 歲的台灣人,告訴我們答案。⋯⋯為夢而活,不平凡的平凡大眾」(大眾銀行──夢騎士40 秒電視廣告)又或者是:

「人為什麼活著?為了思念?為了活下去?為了活更長?還是為了離開?5 個台灣人,平均年齡81 歲。一個重聽、一個得了癌症、三個有心臟病、每一個都有退化性關節炎。6 個月的準備,環島13 天,2,139 公里,從北到南、從黑夜到白天、只為了一個簡單的理由。人為什麼要活著?夢,不平凡的平凡大眾」(大眾銀行──夢騎士3 分鐘網路廣告)以上的文字應該有喚起你的記憶。消費者或許不會因為喜歡廣告而到大眾銀行開戶,但只要同樣的台詞,配合對應的語調與音樂,就能激發消費者內在的情感,進而喚起相關的記憶與感覺。如果能讓消費者因為廣告,而對其中的品牌或產品產生較好的態度,就能讓消費者在進行相關購買決策時,提高意願。

趣味廣告影響消費決策

近年來的研究發現幽默元素對於高涉入產品是有效的,因為高涉入產品容易引起消費者的焦慮,而運用幽默元素來化解時,更能強化消費者對廣告的態度。並且近年來台灣對家庭日趨重視,所以許多購買行為會以家庭需要為主要考量,透過幽默元素吸引兒童或女性的目光,進而影響消費者的購買決策。Nissan 為了能夠打入家庭市場,藉由活潑的色調運用,並以兒童喜歡的某個象徵物作為主角,以及輕快的節奏來作為廣告訴求,成功塑造話題。

獨角仙系列廣告包括1.「小車的省油、MPV 的空間、SUV 的自由」;2.「Livina 放架版(Fun 假版)」;3.「RV 小玩咖(好冷篇)」;4.「RV 小玩咖(很涼篇)」;5. 野放版。整體皆運用「滑稽」、「對比」與「驚訝手法」來作為幽默廣告訴求,不必攻擊對手也能成功吸引以家庭需求為主的購買者。國外車廠也同樣運用類似手法,例如Volkswagan(VW,德國福斯汽車)的Tiguan 廣告,廣告中一個孩子在玩小模型車,但同時跟「車實際在越野」的畫面進行對比,以幽默的方式強調車子的性能。為強化廣告效果,廣告還誇下海口說:「你想得到的,Tiguan 都做得到」。但這時畫面轉到小孩將車子反過來在桌子下面懸空著跑,此時廣告台詞趕快說「嗯⋯⋯幾乎啦」,讓消費者會心一笑並印象深刻。

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